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  1. page Bacterial Treatments edited ... Bacteria Toxins May Eradicate Zebra Mussels. A promising method of eradicating zebra mussels …
    ...
    Bacteria Toxins May Eradicate Zebra Mussels.
    A promising method of eradicating zebra mussels is by applying Zequanox to treat fresh water bodies. Developed by the company Marrone Bio Innovations, Zequanox is a commercial name for a biological control product that kills zebra mussels . This product is derived from a naturally occurring pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium . Researchers gained interest in this breed of bacteria when it was hypothesized that bacteria in nature, have toxins that may be used to eradicate aquatic pests including zebra mussels. In identifying pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A (pf-CL145A) strain (breed), researchers screened over 700 bacterial strains. Subsequently, they identified 10 strains of pseudomonas fluorescens that are lethal to zebra mussels. When laboratory tested, only pf-CL145A was found to be highly toxic to zebra mussels. Although pf-CL145A is toxic to zebra mussels, it shows no sign of toxicity when filter-feeding . Figure 1 shown below shows mussel cells, before and after bacterial treatment.
    ...
    after treatment
    {imagemak.png}
    (a) (b)
    Effectiveness of Pseudomonas Fluorescens CL145A (pf-CL145A)
    Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of zebra mussels. When zebra mussels consume high dosages of strain pf-CL145A bacteria, toxic substances contained in bacterial cells cause damage to its digestive system, leading to it's death . This bacterial strain continues to destroy a zebra mussel’s digestive system, even when its cells are dead . Moreover, Mayer explains that this bacterial product is highly effective under appropriate environmental factors that are found in natural environments .These factors include water temperature, oxygenation, turbidity and chemistry, to name a few. This technique is laboratory developed and shows a significant 90% success rate in eradicating zebra mussels, while causing no harm to non-targeted microorganism . According to Mayer, "The toxicity of the bacterial product is highly specific to quagga and zebra mussels. At dosages that produce high mussel mortality, no bacteria-induced mortality has been observed among any of the non-target species tested, including fish, ciliates, daphnids and native bivalves. Mammalian toxicological studies predict human safety when working with this product ” . Molloy also explains that this technique is better in controlling zebra mussels, compared to the use of chlorine which cause adverse effects to the ecosystem . The mortality rate can be seen in Figure 2 below.
    ...
    {zmortalityrate.jpg}
    How does bacteria get into zebra mussels?
    ...
    feed on bacteria .bacteria. Figure 3
    Figure 3: Zebra Mussel Filter feeding.
    {figure 1-s.jpg}
    Potential Environmental/Fauna and Flora Impacts.
    There are several ongoing researches aiming at establishing the toxicity of pf-CL145A. However, its toxic effects are yet to be found. Current acute toxicity testing of the formulated product shows no effect on humans and other non-targeted species. Subsequently, this led to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to wave the pf-CL145A. The conditions at which it is waved fall, includes the circumstance that pf-CL145A is naturally found in water, soil, and on surfaces and roots of numerous plants. Furthermore, it is documented that Zequanox naturally decays in about 24 hours. To verify this assertion, Zequanox was added into jars of water and twenty-four hours later, zebra mussels were exposed to this water. As a result, the degraded Zequanox shown no toxic effects on zebra mussel, which ultimately confirm degradation of its active ingredients

    The pf-L145A chemistry in killing zebra mussels
    Chemical ingredients in pf-CL145A that are lethal to zebra mussels are yet to be identified, but some sources suggest that certain pseudomonas fluoroscens use nitrates (NO3-) instead of oxygen (O2) during metabolism. If this is confirmed, then it can be implied that the nitrate ion is one of the chemicals in the pf-CL145 strain that might be responsible for killing zebra mussels. Nitrates are typically very toxic and kills most aquatic animals that are exposed to it. High nitrate concentrations in fresh water has the potential to even kill fish. The means by which nitrates kill marine animals is by depriving them with needed oxygen. Moreover, nitrates gets into fresh water by means of “surface run-off’ from agricultural lands or landscapes, as it is contained in salts such as potassium nitrate. When KNO3 is dissociated in water, NO3- ion acts as an oxidizing agent, and therefore gets used by bacteria. When aquatic animals such as mussels consume the NO3- from the bacteria, they die by suffocation [9].
    Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate into its components
    KNO3(s) ↔ NO3-(aq) + K+(aq)
    ...
    prove this hypothesis.
    Potential Environmental, Fauna and Flora, Impacts.
    There are several ongoing researches aiming at establishing the toxicity of pf-CL145A. However, its toxic effects are yet to be found. Current acute toxicity testing of the formulated product shows no effect on humans and other non-targeted species. Subsequently, this led to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to wave the pf-CL145A. The conditions at which it is waved fall, includes the circumstance that pf-CL145A is naturally found in water, soil, and on surfaces and roots of numerous plants. Furthermore, it is documented that Zequanox naturally decays in about 24 hours. To verify this assertion, Zequanox was added into jars of water and twenty-four hours later, zebra mussels were exposed to this water. As a result, the degraded Zequanox shown no toxic effects on zebra mussel, which ultimately confirm degradation of its active ingredients .
    hypothesis
    .

    Moore, R.,Wiers, A., Phillips, S., Williams, G., (2009). Paradise Lake Management Plan. Biological Stations, University of Michigan.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://141.213.232.243/handle/2027.42/64840?mode=full&submit_simple=Show+full+item+record
    (view changes)
    10:37 pm
  2. page Bacterial Treatments edited ... Bacteria Toxins May Eradicate Zebra Mussels. A promising method of eradicating zebra mussels …
    ...
    Bacteria Toxins May Eradicate Zebra Mussels.
    A promising method of eradicating zebra mussels is by applying Zequanox to treat fresh water bodies. Developed by the company Marrone Bio Innovations, Zequanox is a commercial name for a biological control product that kills zebra mussels . This product is derived from a naturally occurring pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium . Researchers gained interest in this breed of bacteria when it was hypothesized that bacteria in nature, have toxins that may be used to eradicate aquatic pests including zebra mussels. In identifying pseudomonas fluorescens CL145A (pf-CL145A) strain (breed), researchers screened over 700 bacterial strains. Subsequently, they identified 10 strains of pseudomonas fluorescens that are lethal to zebra mussels. When laboratory tested, only pf-CL145A was found to be highly toxic to zebra mussels. Although pf-CL145A is toxic to zebra mussels, it shows no sign of toxicity when filter-feeding . Figure 1 shown below shows mussel cells, before and after bacterial treatment.
    ...
    after treatment
    {imagemak.png}
    (a) (b)
    ...
    Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of zebra mussels. When zebra mussels consume high dosages of strain pf-CL145A bacteria, toxic substances contained in bacterial cells cause damage to its digestive system, leading to it's death . This bacterial strain continues to destroy a zebra mussel’s digestive system, even when its cells are dead . Moreover, Mayer explains that this bacterial product is highly effective under appropriate environmental factors that are found in natural environments .These factors include water temperature, oxygenation, turbidity and chemistry, to name a few. This technique is laboratory developed and shows a significant 90% success rate in eradicating zebra mussels, while causing no harm to non-targeted microorganism . According to Mayer, "The toxicity of the bacterial product is highly specific to quagga and zebra mussels. At dosages that produce high mussel mortality, no bacteria-induced mortality has been observed among any of the non-target species tested, including fish, ciliates, daphnids and native bivalves. Mammalian toxicological studies predict human safety when working with this product ” . Molloy also explains that this technique is better in controlling zebra mussels, compared to the use of chlorine which cause adverse effects to the ecosystem . The mortality rate can be seen in Figure 2 below.
    Figure 2: Percent (%) Mortality Rate of Zebra Mussels
    {figure 1-s.jpg}{zmortalityrate.jpg}
    How does bacteria get into zebra mussels?
    Zebra mussels naturally feed by filtering food off the water column. As a result, it consumes bacteria and other microorganisms, including phytoplankton, as its food . To verify that zebra mussels utilize bacteria as its sole food source, a group of researchers conducted an experiment by collecting a sample of zebra mussels and isolated them in an artificial river water for three months without feeding. During this three (3) month period, the mussels’ physiological responses were recorded. On monthly intervals, 10 mussels were removed and analyzed for physical signs of starvation. By the end of three months when there was evidence of starvation, zebra mussels were fed with bacteria and their starvation recovery responses recorded. Subsequently, the results showed starvation recovery, which confirmed the initial hypothesis that zebra mussels feed on bacteria . Figure 3 shows mussel filter-feeding on microorganisms by inhaling and exhaling water.
    Figure 3: Zebra Mussel Filter feeding.
    {figure 1-s.jpg}
    The pf-L145A chemistry in killing zebra mussels
    Chemical ingredients in pf-CL145A that are lethal to zebra mussels are yet to be identified, but some sources suggest that certain pseudomonas fluoroscens use nitrates (NO3-) instead of oxygen (O2) during metabolism. If this is confirmed, then it can be implied that the nitrate ion is one of the chemicals in the pf-CL145 strain that might be responsible for killing zebra mussels. Nitrates are typically very toxic and kills most aquatic animals that are exposed to it. High nitrate concentrations in fresh water has the potential to even kill fish. The means by which nitrates kill marine animals is by depriving them with needed oxygen. Moreover, nitrates gets into fresh water by means of “surface run-off’ from agricultural lands or landscapes, as it is contained in salts such as potassium nitrate. When KNO3 is dissociated in water, NO3- ion acts as an oxidizing agent, and therefore gets used by bacteria. When aquatic animals such as mussels consume the NO3- from the bacteria, they die by suffocation [9].
    Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate into its components
    KNO3(s) ↔ NO3-(aq) + K+(aq)
    ...
    this hypothesis.
    Potential Environmental, Fauna and Flora, Impacts.
    ...
    its active ingredients[10] ingredients .
    Moore, R.,Wiers, A., Phillips, S., Williams, G., (2009). Paradise Lake Management Plan. Biological Stations, University of Michigan.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://141.213.232.243/handle/2027.42/64840?mode=full&submit_simple=Show+full+item+record
    ...
    Ficher, M. E.,Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A., Parsons, R.H., Vathanodorn, K., Waitkus, K. R., (2000). Interaction between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and microbial communities. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/docview/219322225/fulltextPDF?accountid=9838
    New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2012). Joe Martens Commissioner, retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/biopest-biocont/biofung/pseudomo_fluor/pseudo_fluor_CL145A_reg_1112.pdf
    (view changes)
    10:22 pm
  3. page Summary edited ... Summary: Pros & Cons of Each Treatment Method In summary, the benefits and detractors of …
    ...
    Summary: Pros & Cons of Each Treatment Method
    In summary, the benefits and detractors of each method discussed in the wiki are summarized in the following table. There is currently no ideal method in treating zebra mussel biofouling, as different methods employed may have various pros and cons depending on the situation. It is up to the discretion of the reader to choose the most logical method in their respective situation. In the future, it is possible that BioBullets will replace chlorine treatments as the most commonly used method in the eradication of zebra mussel biofouling in freshwater bodies.
    {zmb2.png}{zmb3.png}
    (view changes)
    10:13 pm
  4. file zmb3.png uploaded
    10:13 pm
  5. page Bacterial Treatments edited ... Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of…
    ...
    Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of zebra mussels. When zebra mussels consume high dosages of strain pf-CL145A bacteria, toxic substances contained in bacterial cells cause damage to its digestive system, leading to it's death . This bacterial strain continues to destroy a zebra mussel’s digestive system, even when its cells are dead . Moreover, Mayer explains that this bacterial product is highly effective under appropriate environmental factors that are found in natural environments .These factors include water temperature, oxygenation, turbidity and chemistry, to name a few. This technique is laboratory developed and shows a significant 90% success rate in eradicating zebra mussels, while causing no harm to non-targeted microorganism . According to Mayer, "The toxicity of the bacterial product is highly specific to quagga and zebra mussels. At dosages that produce high mussel mortality, no bacteria-induced mortality has been observed among any of the non-target species tested, including fish, ciliates, daphnids and native bivalves. Mammalian toxicological studies predict human safety when working with this product ” . Molloy also explains that this technique is better in controlling zebra mussels, compared to the use of chlorine which cause adverse effects to the ecosystem . The mortality rate can be seen in Figure 2 below.
    Figure 2: Percent (%) Mortality Rate of Zebra Mussels
    {figure 1-s.jpg}
    How does bacteria get into zebra mussels?
    Zebra mussels naturally feed by filtering food off the water column. As a result, it consumes bacteria and other microorganisms, including phytoplankton, as its food . To verify that zebra mussels utilize bacteria as its sole food source, a group of researchers conducted an experiment by collecting a sample of zebra mussels and isolated them in an artificial river water for three months without feeding. During this three (3) month period, the mussels’ physiological responses were recorded. On monthly intervals, 10 mussels were removed and analyzed for physical signs of starvation. By the end of three months when there was evidence of starvation, zebra mussels were fed with bacteria and their starvation recovery responses recorded. Subsequently, the results showed starvation recovery, which confirmed the initial hypothesis that zebra mussels feed on bacteria . Figure 3 shows mussel filter-feeding on microorganisms by inhaling and exhaling water.
    (view changes)
    10:12 pm
  6. page Bacterial Treatments edited ... Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of…
    ...
    Studies have shown that pseudomonas fluorescensCL145A (pf-CL145A) destroys greater than 90% of zebra mussels. When zebra mussels consume high dosages of strain pf-CL145A bacteria, toxic substances contained in bacterial cells cause damage to its digestive system, leading to it's death . This bacterial strain continues to destroy a zebra mussel’s digestive system, even when its cells are dead . Moreover, Mayer explains that this bacterial product is highly effective under appropriate environmental factors that are found in natural environments .These factors include water temperature, oxygenation, turbidity and chemistry, to name a few. This technique is laboratory developed and shows a significant 90% success rate in eradicating zebra mussels, while causing no harm to non-targeted microorganism . According to Mayer, "The toxicity of the bacterial product is highly specific to quagga and zebra mussels. At dosages that produce high mussel mortality, no bacteria-induced mortality has been observed among any of the non-target species tested, including fish, ciliates, daphnids and native bivalves. Mammalian toxicological studies predict human safety when working with this product ” . Molloy also explains that this technique is better in controlling zebra mussels, compared to the use of chlorine which cause adverse effects to the ecosystem . The mortality rate can be seen in Figure 2 below.
    Figure 2: Percent (%) Mortality Rate of Zebra Mussels
    {zmortalityrate.jpg}
    How does bacteria get into zebra mussels?
    Zebra mussels naturally feed by filtering food off the water column. As a result, it consumes bacteria and other microorganisms, including phytoplankton, as its food . To verify that zebra mussels utilize bacteria as its sole food source, a group of researchers conducted an experiment by collecting a sample of zebra mussels and isolated them in an artificial river water for three months without feeding. During this three (3) month period, the mussels’ physiological responses were recorded. On monthly intervals, 10 mussels were removed and analyzed for physical signs of starvation. By the end of three months when there was evidence of starvation, zebra mussels were fed with bacteria and their starvation recovery responses recorded. Subsequently, the results showed starvation recovery, which confirmed the initial hypothesis that zebra mussels feed on bacteria . Figure 3 shows mussel filter-feeding on microorganisms by inhaling and exhaling water.
    ...
    It is this ionic compound that certain bacterial strains use to enhance their metabolism. When zebra mussels consume this nitrated bacteria, it deprives its system with oxygen and dies. Further experiments would be required to prove this hypothesis.
    Potential Environmental, Fauna and Flora, Impacts.
    ...
    active ingredients[10]
    Moore, R.,Wiers, A., Phillips, S., Williams, G., (2009). Paradise Lake Management Plan. Biological Stations, University of Michigan.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://141.213.232.243/handle/2027.42/64840?mode=full&submit_simple=Show+full+item+record
    (view changes)
    10:11 pm
  7. page Eradicating Zebra Mussels from Freshwater Bodies Wiki Overview edited ... 4) Other Chemical Treatments 5) New Technology: BioBullets 6) Summary of Treatment Methods …
    ...
    4) Other Chemical Treatments
    5) New Technology: BioBullets
    6) Summary of Treatment Methods
    (view changes)
    10:10 pm
  8. page Bacterial Treatments edited ... Zebra mussels naturally feed by filtering food off the water column. As a result, it consumes …
    ...
    Zebra mussels naturally feed by filtering food off the water column. As a result, it consumes bacteria and other microorganisms, including phytoplankton, as its food . To verify that zebra mussels utilize bacteria as its sole food source, a group of researchers conducted an experiment by collecting a sample of zebra mussels and isolated them in an artificial river water for three months without feeding. During this three (3) month period, the mussels’ physiological responses were recorded. On monthly intervals, 10 mussels were removed and analyzed for physical signs of starvation. By the end of three months when there was evidence of starvation, zebra mussels were fed with bacteria and their starvation recovery responses recorded. Subsequently, the results showed starvation recovery, which confirmed the initial hypothesis that zebra mussels feed on bacteria . Figure 3 shows mussel filter-feeding on microorganisms by inhaling and exhaling water.
    Figure 3: Zebra Mussel Filter feeding.
    {figure 1-s.jpg}
    The pf-L145A chemistry in killing zebra mussels
    Chemical ingredients in pf-CL145A that are lethal to zebra mussels are yet to be identified, but some sources suggest that certain pseudomonas fluoroscens use nitrates (NO3-) instead of oxygen (O2) during metabolism. If this is confirmed, then it can be implied that the nitrate ion is one of the chemicals in the pf-CL145 strain that might be responsible for killing zebra mussels. Nitrates are typically very toxic and kills most aquatic animals that are exposed to it. High nitrate concentrations in fresh water has the potential to even kill fish. The means by which nitrates kill marine animals is by depriving them with needed oxygen. Moreover, nitrates gets into fresh water by means of “surface run-off’ from agricultural lands or landscapes, as it is contained in salts such as potassium nitrate. When KNO3 is dissociated in water, NO3- ion acts as an oxidizing agent, and therefore gets used by bacteria. When aquatic animals such as mussels consume the NO3- from the bacteria, they die by suffocation [9].
    ...
    It is this ionic compound that certain bacterial strains use to enhance their metabolism. When zebra mussels consume this nitrated bacteria, it deprives its system with oxygen and dies. Further experiments would be required to prove this hypothesis.
    Potential Environmental, Fauna and Flora, Impacts.
    ...
    its active ingredients .ingredients[10]
    Moore, R.,Wiers, A., Phillips, S., Williams, G., (2009). Paradise Lake Management Plan. Biological Stations, University of Michigan.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://141.213.232.243/handle/2027.42/64840?mode=full&submit_simple=Show+full+item+record
    ...
    Ficher, M. E.,Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A., Parsons, R.H., Vathanodorn, K., Waitkus, K. R., (2000). Interaction between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and microbial communities. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.
    Retrieved October 7, 2012 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/docview/219322225/fulltextPDF?accountid=9838
    New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2012). Joe Martens Commissioner, retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/biopest-biocont/biofung/pseudomo_fluor/pseudo_fluor_CL145A_reg_1112.pdf
    (view changes)
    10:10 pm
  9. page space.menu edited ... 4) Other Chemical Treatments 5) New Technology: BioBullets 6) Summary of Treatment Methods …
    ...
    4) Other Chemical Treatments
    5) New Technology: BioBullets
    6) Summary of Treatment Methods
    (view changes)
    10:09 pm
  10. page Summary edited Summary: Pros & Cons of Each Treatment Method ... method in the eradication of zebra m…

    Summary: Pros & Cons of Each Treatment Method
    ...
    method in the eradication of zebra mussel
    ...
    freshwater bodies.
    {ZMBtable.png}

    {zmb2.png}

    (view changes)
    10:08 pm

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